An axiomatic logical system consists of axioms and rules of inference, where an axiom is a statement stipulated to be provable and a rule of inference is a description of how to obtain new provable statements from old ones. A theorem is either an axiom or the result of applying a rule of inference to one or more theorems, and a proof is a sequence of statements such that every statement is either an axiom or a theorem obtained by applying a rule of inference to previous statements in the sequence.
Classical propositional logic is encompassed by the following axioms1, along with one rule of inference:
p →. q → p
p →. q → r :→: p → q .→. p → q
¬p → ¬q .→. q → p
Modus ponens: If
p → q and
p are theorems, then so is
Intuitively, (1) says that a true statement is implied by anything, (2) says that implication is transitive, and (3) says that implication is contraposable.
Given all these definitions, it’s possible (indeed, easy!) to write a program in Reazon miniKanren to generate propositional logic proofs.
Propositional formulae will be represented with a Lispy syntax (i.e., with lots of parentheses). A justification will be one of the symbols
MP, and a step will be a list whose first element is a justification and whose second element is a formula. A proof will be a list of steps ordered from “latest” to “earliest”. I don’t have a rigorous definition of the ordering, but basically the first element of a proof list will be the theorem being proved, elements in the middle will be intermediate steps, and the last elements will be axioms. The ordering is complicated by the fact that proofs can be nested.
But this all makes it seem more complicated than it really is. The code is short and simple2:
Let’s look at the first four proofs generated from this definition.
((A1 (_0 → (_1 → _0))))
((A2 ((_0 → (_1 → _2)) → ((_0 → _1) → (_0 → _2)))))
((A3 (((¬ _0) → (¬ _1)) → (_1 → _0))))
((MP (_0 → (_1 → (_2 → _1)))) ((A1 (_1 → (_2 → _1)))) ((A1 ((_1 → (_2 → _1)) → (_0 → (_1 → (_2 → _1)))))))
The first three “proofs” are just the axioms, which are self-justifying. The fourth proof has a little more going on. With better formatting:
The conclusion of the proof (i.e., the theorem to be proved) is
(_0 → (_1 → (_2 → _1))). The first statement in the proof is an instance of (1), where
_2. The second statement is another instance of (1), where
(_1 → (_2 → _1)) and
_0. Finally, the conclusion is obtained by an application of modus ponens to those two statements.
Boring for sure, but that is nonetheless a real, accurate, full-blown proof!
I ran this definition for the first one hundred results, which took two or three seconds on a 2012 MBP. The hundredth theorem is not bad:
(((¬ _0) → (¬ (_1 → (_2 → _1)))) → _0). This says that if the negation of a statement implies the negation of (1), then that statement is true, which is an instance of reasoning by contradiction. Here is the proof:
Of the first one hundred proofs generated, twenty (!!!) are proofs of the “theorem”
(_0 → (_1 → _0)) (the first axiom). Some of these proofs are quite long, for example:
This proof consists of repeated applications of modus ponens to nested instances of (1) using eight (!!!) different variables. This is as inane as it sounds, but it does appear to be a valid proof.
In the expression that generated these results (
(reazon-run 4 q (prop-logic-proof q))), the query variable
q was left free. We can also generate proofs of specific theorems by specifying the form of the query variable. For instance, we can find proofs of theorems of the form
¬¬p → p (i.e. double negation elimination):
Of the first one hundred results for this query, none of the theorems proved are actually
((¬ (¬ _0)) → _0), which is what I wanted. Instead, they all replace that free variable
_0 with some theorem (often an axiom, as above). It’s not clear to me if this is due to a flaw in the definition of proof (is there something being left out?), in Reazon itself (is the search really complete?), or if such a theorem really would eventually be proved given enough time. Would it show up in the first thousand results? The first million? This proof of double negation elimination uses three (!!!) intermediate lemmas, so maybe it just requires a long proof.
Finally, the proof “generator” can also be used as proof verifier. In this case, we’ll bind the query variable to some arbitrary symbol, and the presence or absence of that symbol in the output will indicate the validity of the proof.
As I was writing the section on proof verification, I discovered a bug in the definition of
prop-logic-proof. The rule for modus ponens given above looks like this:
This definition causes the following query to go into an infinite loop:
An important principle of writing miniKanren programs is: always put the recursive calls last. This change fixes the problem:
1 Due to Lukasiewicz, according to Wikipedia.